Monday, August 12, 2019

ISO 7816-4 spy using Wireshark

In a previous blog article "CCID USB spy using Wireshark" I documented how to use Wireshark to analyse USB CCID packets.

It is also possible to continue the packet decoding to show ISO 7816-4 format commands.

Raw USB packets

By default you will get USB packets.

CCID packets

Enable the USBCCID decoder in the Wireshark menu Analyze -> Decode as...
You will then see CCID packets.
But APDUs sent to the reader may be hard to read is you do not decode ISO 7816-4 directly in your head.
All we get here is Data: 00 a4 04 00 0b a0 00 00 03 97 43 49 44 5f 01 00

ISO 7816 commands

Now enable the ISO 7816 decoder.
And you will see ISO 7816-4 command names.
Here you see that the APDU 00 a4 04 00 0b a0 00 00 03 97 43 49 44 5f 01 00 is a "Select file" (the second byte, INS byte, is 0xA4)


Not all the CCID packets are decoded.

For example the Secure command (0x69) is not (yet) decoded.
Only the first CCID byte is decoded as "Message Type: PC_to_RDR_Secure (0x69)". The remaining of the CCID frame is not decoded. And this command is not easy to decode by hand without the CCID specification.

This CCID Secure command is used with a pinpad reader to make the user enter its PIN code in the pinpad and not on the computer keyboard. See here for a list of pinpad readers working with my CCID driver.
The Secure command uses parameters to set the PIN padding, the messages displayed to the user, the min and max PIN lengths, the validation conditions and some other parameters. Not all pinpad readers support the same set of parameters so the situation is complex.

Windows support

In my previous article "CCID USB spy using Wireshark" I make the USB trace acquisition on a GNU/Linux system.

This time I made the capture on Windows, saved the file on disk (.pcapng format) and used Wireshark on macOS to study the file. Yes, I prefer to NOT use Windows as much as possible.

So whatever the system you are using (GNU/Linux, macOS or Windows, and maybe others) Wireshark can help you.


Wireshark is a very nice tool. I should use it more often to debug issues and understand why a program is working on Windows and not on GNU/Linux. It can be used to do some reverse engineering, especially with complex CCID commands like the Secure command.

Saturday, August 10, 2019

New version of libccid: 1.4.31

I just released a version 1.4.31 of libccid the Free Software CCID class smart card reader driver.


1.4.31 - 10 August 2019, Ludovic Rousseau
  • Add support of
    • ACS ACR1252 Reader
    • Aladdin R.D. JaCartaReader
    • Alcor Link AK9563
    • AvestUA AvestKey
    • Avtor SecureToken (idProduct: 0x0020)
    • Bit4id TokenME EVO v2
    • Bit4id miniLector AIR EVO
    • Bit4id miniLector Blue
    • Broadcom Corp 58200 (idProduct: 0x5843)
    • Broadcom Corp 58200 (idProduct: 0x5844)
    • Broadcom Corp 58200 (idProduct: 0x5845)
    • Certgate GmbH ONEKEY ID 2 USB
    • HID Global Crescendo Key 0x0028
    • HID Global Crescendo Key 0x0029
    • HID Global Crescendo Key 0x002B
    • HID Global Crescendo Key 0x002D
    • Identiv SCR3500 C Contact Reader
    • InfoCert WirelessKey
    • NXP PN7462AU CCID
    • Route1 MobiKEY Fusion3
  • MacOSX/configure: fix checking error for dynamic library libusb
  • Some minor improvements for debug

Friday, August 9, 2019

PySCard 1.9.9 released

I just released a new version 1.9.9 of pyscard. PySCard is a python module adding smart cards support (PC/SC) to Python.

The PySCard project is available at:


1.9.9 (August 2019)
  • Makefile: use twine to upload to
  • test: fix Exception test on 32-bits CPU
  • test: correctly handle macOS versions older than 10.10

Wednesday, June 26, 2019

GnuPG and PC/SC conflicts


" GnuPG is a complete and free implementation of the OpenPGP standard as defined by RFC4880 (also known as PGP). GnuPG allows you to encrypt and sign your data and communications. "

GnuPG provides support of smart card using the OpenPGP application in the card or token. See "How to use the Fellowship Smartcard" for more details.


PC/SC (defined by the PC/SC workgroup) is the "standard" way to access smart cards and smart card readers.

pcsc-lite is a Free Software implementation of the PC/SC standard often used in Unix systems.
pcscd is a daemon, part of pcsc-lite, accessing the smart card readers.

The problem

By default GnuPG has its own way to access smart cards with the help of the scdaemon helper process.

If you use GnuPG and also PC/SC on the same system you may have problems.

scdaemon get access

If scdaemon is started before pcscd then the smart card reader will not be available at the PC/SC level.
In pcscd logs you get the error:
ccid_usb.c:653:OpenUSBByName() Can't claim interface 1/12: LIBUSB_ERROR_BUSY

pcscd get access

If pcscd is started before scdaemon then the smart card will not be available at the GnuPG level.
You get the error:
$ gpg --card-status 
gpg: selecting openpgp failed: No such device
gpg: OpenPGP card not available: No such device

It is becoming a FAQ (Debian bug #925312, github issue) so I decided to document possible solutions.

The solutions

Remove pcscd from your system

The obvious solution to avoid the conflict is to remove one of the two participants.
If you use your smart card only with GnuPG then you can remove pcscd entirely.

But if you have pcscd installed it may be for a good reason. You may want/need to use PC/SC for other applications.

Tell GnuPG to use PC/SC

Another solution is to make GnuPG and pcscd collaborate to work together.
Luckily it is possible to do that using the scdaemon option --disable-ccid

From the documentation:

Disable the integrated support for CCID compliant readers. This allows falling back to one of the other drivers even if the internal CCID driver can handle the reader. Note, that CCID support is only available if libusb was available at build time.

With this option scdaemon will use PC/SC to talk to the smart card and the conflict is solved.

It is possible to tell scdaemon to always use this option by editing the scdaemon configuration file. By default it is ~/.gnupg/scdaemon.conf and it should contain the line:

If you try to make it work be sure to kill any running scdaemon process so that it is restarted with the new option.


I don't know if the problem comes from pcscd or from GnuPG.

The good news is that there is a solution.

Saturday, June 15, 2019 is back

After few days the PC/SC work group web site is available again.

One week ago in " is gone" I announced that the website was dead. It has now resurrected.

PC/SC specifications copies

I will keep my PC/SC specifications copies at just in case the official web site disappears again.

WHQL test cards

It is now also possible to order the "PC/SC Test Card Set V2.0" from
The price is $1000 for 5 cards.

I am not sure I will buy some sets just to speculate on the death again of the PC/SC website. 😏

Monday, June 10, 2019

PC/SC workgroup and WHQL test cards

PC/SC work group

The PC/SC work group was not only used for updating and distributing the PC/SC specification. It was also the reseller of a set of smart cards used by the WHQL process.


WHQL is Windows Hardware Quality Labs. I am not a Windows user (and even less an expert) so I may be wrong here.

It looks like that smart card reader drivers need to go through the WHQL process to be signed by Microsoft and accepted by Windows systems.
The WHQL process for smart card reader driver required the use of a specific set of cards. This set of cards was sold by the PC/SC work group.

Test cards set

Since the PC/SC work group is now dead (see " is gone") it is no more possible to buy such cards set.

The Internet archive service do not have a copy of the "Test Cards" or "Test Cards Ordering" pages. I never used such test cards for my own use. I don't know what the procedure was to order such a Test Cards set.


I can't help here.
The best I can think of is to contact Microsoft so they provide the Test Cards set themselves or change the WHQL process to use something else.

Maybe some company that have one (or more) complete Test Cards set can rent the set for a good amount of money. If the set is rare it should be expensive (supply and demand). Why don't I have such set myself? 😀

Friday, June 7, 2019 is gone

Since a few days/weeks the web site is no more available (HTTP Error 404).
This web site hosted the PC/SC specification. This specification is implemented as WinSCard API for Windows and pcsc-lite on Unix.

PC/SC is the standard way to access smart card readers and smart cards from a Windows of Unix system.
See "PC/SC sample in different languages" for some examples.

Last days

The death of the web site was not announced on any PC/SC mailing list I know.

The latest meeting of the PC/SC members was in December 2016.
The latest email I received from the pcscmembers mailing list was in January 2018.
I guess the group went out of money (not enough paying members) and the company managing the website and meetings (at a very high price) just stopped providing services.

The PC/SC specification are mature enough, or PC/SC members just moved to something else?
It is important to note that Windows never implemented the latest version of PC/SC v2 part 10 (to support pinpad readers in the Windows CCID driver for example). So working on a specification that is not implemented by the major provider is somewhat useless.

Web site copies

The web site was still available the 9th of January 2019 and it has been archived by the Internet Archive (Wayback Machine) at

The specification files are also available from the Internet Archive at

PC/SC specifications copies

I decided to host a copy of the PC/SC specification documents on
I used the copies I made for my own use. But now that the official web site is down I make them public.


It is sad to see a website to disappear silently with no warnings.
If you have other PC/SC public documents you want to share just tell me.

Thursday, May 30, 2019

Surprising request from a law firm

A few weeks ago I received this email:

Subject: [high priority] [19444663] Content Removal - SENSITIVE DATA

Dear Sir/Madam,

Our company, AXUR, represents C.......R in issues involving the violation of intellectual property and fraud on the Internet.

C.......R is the only company authorized to use the trademark and owns or licenses numerous trademark registrations worldwide, including, but not limited to the following registration number 825503736.

The trademarks, logos, words and phrases registered by C.......R shall be exclusively used by C.......R and any other use by a third party constitutes a trademark infringement.

It has come to our attention that the reported content provides related content (see attached) to the trademark without having obtained prior written authorization from C.......R . More specifically, this content disclosures SENSITIVE DATA from our client or its customer, creating a Likelihood of Confusion between the trademark and the reported content.

Furthermore, by misusing the trademark on your website, you are also diluting its use, because it weakens the ability of brand identification as a single source of research and may lead consumers to believe that there is some association between C.......R and your website.

Official Website:

Considering the violation of intellectual property rights of C.......R on your website, we kindly request that you remove all content available on the attached URL(s) which use the above mentioned trademark without having obtained prior authorization.

In order to avoid a lawsuit from a federal court, please, send confirmation that this email was received along with your guarantee to comply with the requests reported above.

Under penalty of perjury, we affirm that AXUR is authorized to act on behalf of the C.......R and this notification is in accordance with International Regulations of Internet and Intellectual Property Offices.

Should you require further information or should you prefer to discuss this issue, please do not hesitate to contact us through the e-mail address listed on the signature of this message.


Legal Team


I replaced the real trademark by "C.......R" to avoid receiving a new email asking to remove this blog article :-)

I also received the same email but with a different subject "[high priority] [19444667] Content Removal" for the same list but with a different URL:


I updated the list of ATR to remove any mention of "C.......R".

I asked confirmation from that the ATR list was OK now. I got no answer.

I also wrote them I would blog about it and got no answer as well.

Wednesday, May 22, 2019

pam_pkcs11: new version 0.6.11


From the project wiki page:
This Linux-PAM login module allows a X.509 certificate based user login. The certificate and its dedicated private key are thereby accessed by means of an appropriate PKCS #11 module. For the verification of the users’ certificates, locally stored CA certificates as well as either online or locally accessible CRLs are used.

The idea is to use a smart card and its corresponding PKCS#11 library to login (and more) into a GNU/Linux system.


22 May 2019
  • Version 0.6.11
  • Support OpenSSL 1.1.0
  • use green instead of blue text for logs on the console
  • Solaris runs build process outside of srcdir
  • Fix openssh_mapper_match_keys() for OpenSSL 1.0 & 1.1
  • Fix 64-bit pkcs11_inspect(1) fails on SPARC with a SIBGUS due to misaligned access
  • Add support of ECDSA signature in addition to RSA


Download the .tar.gz archive from

The .tar.gz or .zip files available from github are not complete (the ./configure script is missing for example)


In a previous blog article "pam_pkcs11: new/last version 0.6.9" (3 years ago) I wrote that it was my last release of pam_pkcs11.
  1. But I had to work on a problem related to the use of pam_pkcs11.
  2. I discovered that the version 0.6.10 (released by Paul Wolneykien, thanks) was not available in Debian.
  3. I decided to upgrade the Debian package.
  4. But version 0.6.10 broke support of OpenSSL 1.1.0 and the build for Debian failed.
  5. So I had to fix that and decided to also merge submitted patches and fix other reported bugs.
That is why you now have a new version of pam_pkcs11.

Wednesday, April 17, 2019

New PyKCS11 1.5.5 available

I just released a new version of PyKCS11, a Python wrapper above the PKCS#11 API.
See "PyKCS11 introduction" or "PyKCS11’s documentation".


1.5.5 - April 2019, Ludovic Rousseau
  • fix source package generation

1.5.4 - April 2019, Ludovic Rousseau
  • getTokenInfo: replace NUL char by ' ' in utcTime
  • dumpit:
    • print hardwareVersion and firmwareVersion
    • print slot flags
    • move to next slot if token not present
  • add samples for ECC key generation and use
  • move from distutils to setuptools
  • upload of wheels to pypi on "make dist"

Monday, March 25, 2019

PySCard 1.9.8 released

I just released a new version 1.9.8 of pyscard. PySCard is a python module adding smart cards support (PC/SC) to Python.

The PySCard project is available at:


1.9.8 (March 2018)

  • SmartcardException: store the PC/SC return code in hresult
  • CardMonitoring: stop the looping only if PCSC exited
  • setup: support build on OpenBSD, and other BSD
  • Fix Windows 10 SCARD_E_SERVICE_STOPPED from SCardListReaders()
  • Minor documentation improvements

New version of pcsc-lite: 1.8.25

I just released a new version of pcsc-lite 1.8.25.
pcsc-lite is a Free Software implementation of the PC/SC (or WinSCard) API for Unix systems.

1.8.25: Ludovic Rousseau
25 March 2019
  • Fix a socket issue when pcscd is used inside LXC container
  • pcsc-spy: always provide a total time of execution
  • Fix resource leak if SCardEstablishContext() fails
  • Fix realloc(3) error handling (possible memory leak)
  • Remove usage of function chmod(2) to use fchmod(2) (fix race condition)

Sunday, March 17, 2019

ATR statistics: TA4

Article from the series "ATR statistics"


The first TA for T=15 encodes the clock stop indicator (X) and the class indicator (Y). The default values are X = "clock stop not supported" and Y = "only class A supported".

bits 8 and 7 indicate whether the card supports clock stop (≠ 00) or not (= 00) and, when supported, which state is preferred on the electrical circuit CLK when the clock is stopped.
  • 00b: Clock stop not supported
  • 01b: State L
  • 10b: State H
  • 11b: No preference

bits 6 to 1 indicate the classes of operating conditions accepted by the card. Each bit represents a class: bit 1 for class A, bit 2 for class B and bit 3 for class C.
  • 00 0001b: A only
  • 00 0010b: B only
  • 00 0100b: C only
  • 00 0011b: A and B
  • 00 0110b: B and C
  • 00 0111b: A, B and C
  • Any other value: RFU

200996.96 %
0x03271.30 %
0x83150.72 %
0xC3120.58 %
0x0760.29 %
0x4320.10 %
0xC710.05 %

Clock stop#%
not supported3352.38 %
state L23.17 %
state H1523.81 %
no preference1320.63 %

The class defines the current voltage the card can use:
  • class A: 5 V
  • class B: 3 V
  • class C: 1.8 V
Some readers can't provide a tension of 5V. For example the Gemalto CT1100 reader does only provide 3 V. The default value for TA4 is "only class A supported". Some (old) cards require a voltage of 5 V to work and will not work with a CT1100. That can be surprising.

A & B5688.89 %
A & B & C711.11 %

ATR statistics: TD3 - Structural, encodes Y4 and T

Article from the series "ATR statistics"

TD3 - Structural, encodes Y4 and T

The ISO 7816-3 specification is not public. So I can't copy/paste part of the text. I will use Wikipedia instead.

Refer to TD1 - Structural, encodes Y2 and T since the definition of TD3 is identical to TD1.

200996.96 %
0x1F612.94 %
0x3F20.10 %

TD3 (as the other TDi bytes) is structural and indicates:
  • How to interpret the other ATR bytes
  • What communication protocol the card wants to use

For 96.96% of the ATRs no TD3 is present. So no other TA4, TB4, TC4 or TD4 is present and no new protocol is defined so the protocol(s) defined by TD1 and TD2 will be used.

For 2.94% of the ATRs TD3 = 0x1F. The high nibble is 0001b so TA4 is present and T=15 protocol is defined. One such ATR is 3B 94 18 81 B1 80 7D 1F 03 19 C8 00 50 DC.

For 0.10% of the ATRs TD3 = 0x3F. The high nibble is 0001b so TA4 and TB4 are present and T=15 protocol is defined. One such ATR is 3B DE 18 FF 81 F1 FE 43 00 3F 07 83 44 45 53 46 69 72 65 38 20 53 41 4D 2D 58 17.

ATR statistics: TC3

Article from the series "ATR statistics".


The ISO 7816-3 specification is not public. So I can't copy/paste part of the text. I will use Wikipedia instead.

For T = 1: type of error detection code used

Bit 1 of the first TC for T=1 indicates the error detection code to be used:
  • CRC if bit 1 is set to 1;
  • LRC (default value) if bit 1 is set to 0.
Bits 8 to 2 of the first TC for T=1 are reserved for future use and shall be set to 0.

201797.35 %
0x00552.65 %

In my list of ATR the only redundancy code used if LRC. I found no card using CRC.

LRC is the default algorithm. But 55 cards explicitly set it. I have no explanation for that.

Tuesday, January 29, 2019

My blog source code license

The blog articles license is Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 as documented in My blog messages license.

Source code samples

I got a question about the license of the source code samples. The Creative Commons license is not really adapted to source code. To allow the reuse of my source samples in other Free Software project I decided to use the GNU GPLv3 license for source code on my blog.

Need something else?

If you need a different license or want to reuse part of my work please contact me.

Tuesday, January 1, 2019

MUSCLE mailing list statistics for 2018

As I did in 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2017 I propose some statistics of the MUSCLE mailing list usage.


YearTotal number of messages Progression
2010718+19 %
2011999+39 %
2012207-79 %
2013198-4 %
2014194-2 %
2014194-2 %
2015120-38 %
2016125+4 %
2017128+2 %
201866-51 %


Again a decrease in number of messages.
I note that I receive many messages directly by email instead of the mailing list.

My interpretation is that the development of pcsc-lite and related software is now complete. Only rare bugs are reported.
Now users are asking for support or help and the easiest way to contact me is using one of my emails.

Statistics from 8.1.2018 to 2.11.2018

People who have written most messages:

  Author  Msg  Percent 
1ludovic.rousseau@gmail.com25 39.06 %
2dennis.rieks@agido.com3 4.69 %
3umberto.rustichelli@gt50.org3 4.69 %
4fhoerni@free.fr3 4.69 %
5martin@martinpaljak.net3 4.69 %
6trenta.sis@gmail.com2 3.12 %
7ludovic.rousseau@free.fr2 3.12 %
8rimarko@libero.it2 3.12 %
9fguzmayon@gmail.com2 3.12 %
10yusufgurkan.bor@gmail.com2 3.12 %
11wrosenauer@gmail.com2 3.12 %
12mamikhajjlov@ipmce.ru2 3.12 %
13te.mlists@googlemail.com2 3.12 %
14frankmorgner@gmail.com2 3.12 %
15jras@dia.uned.es1 1.56 %
16corcordt@me.com1 1.56 %
17tomaz.solc@tablix.org1 1.56 %
18emaxx@google.com1 1.56 %
19scolby33@gmail.com1 1.56 %
20Maximilian.Stein@secunet.com1 1.56 %
21smalder73@gmail.com1 1.56 %
22frantisek.rezac@calavera.info1 1.56 %
23andrea@gravityblast.com1 1.56 %
 other0 0.00 %

Best authors, by total size of their messages (w/o quoting):

  Author  KBytes 330.8 72.6 31.3 22.5 21.8 19.5 17.9 15.5 14.4 12.4 11.7 10.0 9.9 9.8 8.7 4.8 4.1 3.2 1.8 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.1

Best authors, by average size of their message (w/o quoting):

  Author  bytes 

Table showing the most successful subjects:

  Subject  Msg  Percent 
1[Pcsclite-muscle] DUAli DE-620 Smart Card Reader Connection
5 7.81 %
2[Pcsclite-muscle] Dual Interface Reader
3 4.69 %
3[Pcsclite-muscle] Rare race condition in SCardGetStatusChange()
3 4.69 %
4[Pcsclite-muscle] issues with OmniKey 3121 and InCard cards
3 4.69 %
5[Pcsclite-muscle] closing client cancels ongoing transaction
3 4.69 %
6[Pcsclite-muscle] nfc on android
3 4.69 %
7[Pcsclite-muscle] Baudrate change
3 4.69 %
8[Pcsclite-muscle] Free software SIM card software simulator?
3 4.69 %
9[Pcsclite-muscle] smartcard
2 3.12 %
10[Pcsclite-muscle] 20th Anniversary of MUSCLE
2 3.12 %
11[Pcsclite-muscle] Possible regression with Schlumberger egate
2 3.12 %
12[Pcsclite-muscle] Help required with Microchip SEC1210 over Serial
2 3.12 %
13[Pcsclite-muscle] Firefox does not trigger pcsc start
2 3.12 %
14[Pcsclite-muscle] MUSCLE web sites moved to
2 3.12 %
15[Pcsclite-muscle] Problem with EZ100PU reader
2 3.12 %
16[Pcsclite-muscle] PCSCD partially detecting smart card readers
2 3.12 %
17[Pcsclite-muscle] New version of libccid: 1.4.30
2 3.12 %
18[Pcsclite-muscle] NXP NFC Cube on macOS Mojave
2 3.12 %
19[Pcsclite-muscle] pcsc-lite 1.8.23
1 1.56 %
20[Pcsclite-muscle] C3PO LTC31-v2 does not have a pinpad as
1 1.56 %
21[Pcsclite-muscle] SAM ISO7816 connection
1 1.56 %
22[Pcsclite-muscle] socket activation
1 1.56 %
23MUSCLE web sites moved to
1 1.56 %
24New version of pcsc-tools: 1.5.3
1 1.56 %
25[Pcsclite-muscle] IDBridge K3000 is not found by pcsc_scan
1 1.56 %
26[Pcsclite-muscle] CCID has undefined symbol 'yylex' when loaded by
1 1.56 %
27[Pcsclite-muscle] CCID has undefined symbol 'yylex' when loaded
1 1.56 %
28[Pcsclite-muscle] Strange gnome/gdm behavior w/ pcsc,
1 1.56 %
29[Pcsclite-muscle] SCardCancel broken
1 1.56 %
30[Pcsclite-muscle] Czech official identity card
1 1.56 %
 other6 9.38 %

Most used email clients:

  Mailer  Msg  Percent 
1(unknown)44 68.75 %
2Mozilla/5.x11 17.19 %
3Apple Mail (2.3445.100.39)
3 4.69 %
4Apple Mail (2.3445.5.20)
2 3.12 %
5Open-Xchange Mailer v7.8.3-Rev48
2 3.12 %
6Apple Mail (2.3445.9.1)
1 1.56 %
7Apple Mail (2.3445.101.1)
1 1.56 %
 other0 0.00 %

Table of maximal quoting:

  Author  Percent 53.36 % 49.14 % 38.58 % 38.45 % 30.34 % 25.43 % 18.63 % 17.62 % 15.78 % 9.38 % 4.61 % 4.32 % 3.17 % 3.03 % 0.00 % 0.00 % 0.00 % 0.00 % 0.00 % 0.00 % 0.00 % 0.00 % 0.00 %
 average 4.68 %

Graph showing number of messages written during hours of day:


Graph showing number of messages written during days of month:


Graph showing number of messages written during days of week:



Maximal quoting:

Author :
Subject : [Pcsclite-muscle] SCardCancel broken

Date : Thu, 26 Jul 2018 11:09:43 +0200

Quote ratio: 61.36% / 3204 bytes

Longest message:

Author :
Subject : [Pcsclite-muscle] DUAli DE-620 Smart Card Reader Connection
Date : Fri, 31 Aug 2018 17:28:28 +0200
Size : 79832 bytes

Most successful subject:

Subject : [Pcsclite-muscle] DUAli DE-620 Smart Card Reader Connection
No. of msgs: 5
Total size : 172375 bytes

Final summary:

Total number of messages: 64
Total number of different authors: 23
Total number of different subjects: 36
Total size of messages (w/o headers): 675021 bytes
Average size of a message: 10547 bytes