libpcsclite.so.1library is not in
/lib. See the file list of the libpcsclite1 Ubuntu package for example. This is because
libpcsclite.so.1is used by the wpa_supplicant software and this software should be accessible before
/usris mounted. See Debian bug #531592 "libpcsclite1: move to /lib" and Ubuntu bug #44194 "wpasupplicant doesn't start when the network start"
The problemBy default pcsc-lite install its files in
/usr/localbut this path can be changed using the
--prefix=argument. The standard way to install a software is to use:
./configure --prefix=/usr make sudo make install
This will install the daemon
/usr/sbin/pcscdand the library in
The daemon provided by the pcscd package is replaced by the new one. But the new library does not replace the old one. So the system will have:
/usr/sbin/pcscd: new version
/lib/libpcsclite.so.1: old version
/lib/libpcsclite.so.1.0.0: old version
/usr/lib/libpcsclite.so.1: new version
/usr/lib/libpcsclite.so.1.0.0: new version
Of course programs provided by Ubuntu are linked with
/lib/libpcsclite.so.1so they will not use the new version. The old libpcslite will try to communicate with the new pcscd and since I changed the communication protocol that will fail. A typical example can be found in the support request [#312772] RPC Transport error:
$ pcsc_scan PC/SC device scanner V 1.4.16 (c) 2001-2009, Ludovic Rousseau <firstname.lastname@example.org> Compiled with PC/SC lite version: 1.5.3 SCardEstablishContext: RPC transport error.
The solutionThe solution is to install the new version and also replace the old one. It is not possible to remove the
/lib/libpcsclite.so.1*files since they are used by Ubuntu compiled programs.
$ ldd -r /usr/bin/pcsc_scan linux-gate.so.1 => (0x00b71000) libpcsclite.so.1 => /lib/libpcsclite.so.1 (0x003f3000) libc.so.6 => /lib/tls/i686/cmov/libc.so.6 (0x00836000) libpthread.so.0 => /lib/tls/i686/cmov/libpthread.so.0 (0x00cee000) libdl.so.2 => /lib/tls/i686/cmov/libdl.so.2 (0x001a1000) /lib/ld-linux.so.2 (0x009e3000)
So it is not a good idea to remove the libpcsclite1 package since that will also remove other packages (because of dependencies) like libccid libpcsc-perl libpcsclite1 network-manager network-manager-gnome pcsc-tools pcscd ubuntu-desktop wpasupplicant. It is not a good idea to install a non packaged software. But many people do this without knowing what they do. So I propose to help them and avoid answer the many bug report I get because of the special Ubuntu configuration.
Install the new pcsc-lite
$ make install
Fix the old pcsc-lite
$ cd /lib $ ln -sf /usr/lib/libpcsclite.so.1.0.0
This will repace
/lib/libpcsclite.so.1.0.0by a symbolic link to
/lib/libpcsclite.so.1is already a symbolic link to
The Ubuntu wrong solutionwpa_supplicant is linked with
/lib/libpcsclite.so.1so can be run even if
/usris not yet mounted. But the daemon pcscd is in
/usr/sbinso can't be used yet. So the smart card part of wpa_supplicant can't be used without
Ubuntu solved the compilation problem. But it does not solve the usability problem.
You can also note that the libpcsclite1 Ubuntu package is in main but the pcscd Ubuntu package is in universe. That is strange since the two packages are generated from the same source archive.
The correct solutionThe correct solution would be to load the
libpcsclite.so.1at run time using an explicit
dlopen()only if the smart card is used by wpa_supplicant.
The smart card could only be used after
/usris mounted. But I think that is a very reasonable limitation.
ConclusionDiverting from a standard (library in
/usr/libin the present case) has a cost. The problem is that the cost is not payed by the one diverting from the standard. The cost is payed by other people (me, in the present case) that get support requests.
In economy that is called a externality. In the present case it is a negative externality.
Update, May 2017Ubuntu (for example version 14.04 and later) installs the
libpcsclite.so.1library in the directory
/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/on a Intel/AMD 64-bits system /lib/i386-linux-gnu/on an Intel/AMD 32-bits system
While Debian uses:
So be careful to use the correct